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By Giuseppe Rizzo, Domenico Arduini

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4). Figure 4: Right ventricular outflow tract. LV, left ventricle, RV, right ventricle. PA, pulmonary artery. The bifurcation of the pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus completes this view. The right ventricular outflow tract can be confirmed as a pulmonary artery only if its distal end appears bifurcated. The distal pulmonary artery normally divides toward the left side into a ductus arteriosus that continues into the descending aorta. The right side branch into the right pulmonary artery. The great arteries are similar in size, but the pulmonary artery at the valve ring may be slightly bigger than the aorta.

Figure 2: Four- Chamber view of the fetal heart. LA, left atrium, LV, left ventricle, RA, right atrium, RV, right ventricle. CARDIAC LONG-AXIS VIEW The long-axis view is aligned with the left ventricular outflow tract (Clip 8, Fig. 3). Evaluation of outflow tracts can increase the detection rates for major cardiac malformations above those achievable by the four-chamber view alone [27,28]. The four chamber view is inadequate for determining the conotruncus anomaly and in particular Transposition of the Great Arteries, Tetralogy of Fallot, Subaortic Ventricular Septal Defect, Double Outlet Right Ventricle, and Truncus Arteriosus.

The great arteries are similar in size, but the pulmonary artery at the valve ring may be slightly bigger than the aorta. The pulmonary valve is anterior and cranial to the aortic valve. The great arteries cross over at their origin. THE THREE-VESSEL VIEW Demonstrates the long axis views of the tranverse aortic arch and ductus arteriosus and the short axis views of the superior vena cava and trachea (Clip 11) [29-33]. THE SHORT AXIS VIEW / THE RIGHT HEART VIEWS This section demonstrates the right ventricle and the ventricular outflow tract.

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