By Andrea Megela Simmons (auth.), Andrea Megela Simmons, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)
In order to speak, animals ship and obtain signs which are topic to their specific anatomical, mental, and environmental constraints. This SHAR quantity discusses either the creation and conception of acoustic signs. Chapters tackle the data that animals speak, how the verbal exchange is built and discovered, and the way verbal exchange structures have tailored and developed inside of species. The e-book will provide examples from various species.
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Extra resources for Acoustic Communication
1 in Richardson et al. (1995). 00001 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 26 20 0 214 194 174 154 134 114 94 74 54 34 14 0 -6 -26 intensity or pressure. By indicating the accepted standard reference values for intensity or pressure, it will be immediately obvious which measure is being reported for either air or water. The relationship between intensity and pressure is easily confused. Remember that: (1) as sound intensity increases by some factor, pressure increases only by the square root of the factor; and (2) as pressure increases by some factor, sound intensity increases by the square of that factor (after Speaks 1992, p.
117). Sound velocity is then determined as c = g BT r0 (5) where BT is the bulk modulus. 01 (Kinsler and Frey 1962, p. 503). 3. Sound-Velocity Proﬁle Under natural conditions, sound velocity within a medium is not uniform. As noted above, sound velocity in water changes as a function of temperature, depth, and salinity. Variation in sound velocity as a function of water depth is referred to as the sound-velocity proﬁle (SVP). The SVP for an environment is important for predicting sound propagation and potential intensity losses both as a function of depth and range from a sound source (Fig.
Sound Velocity Sound velocity varies with the transmission medium and, in general, is higher in liquids than gases but highest in solids. It can be affected by temperature, salinity, and pressure or depth (see Beranek 1988); typically, these variables are designated when reporting sound velocity. Thus, in air, at sea level and 20°C, the speed of sound is 343 m/sec. In this case, velocity, c, is determined as (Kinsler and Frey 1962, pp. 21 kg/m3). 06 m/ sec at 20°C, almost ﬁvefold greater than in air.